Department of Computer Science
New York University
Catherine Macleod, Ralph Grishman, Adam Meyers, Leslie Barrett
NOMLEX (NOMinalization Lexicon) is a dictionary of English
developed by the Proteus Project at New York University under the
of Catherine Macleod. NOMLEX seeks not only to describe the allowed
for a nominalization, but also to relate the nominal complements to
arguments of the corresponding verb. The complements of the
are described in terms of the COMLEX Syntax verb subcategorization
of its associated verb. See the COMLEX Syntax Manual for information
the verbal complements. We identify both the main verbal arguments
direct object, and indirect object), which may map into a variety of
positions, and the oblique verbal complements, which map more
into nominal complements. The argument correspondences are specified
a combination of explicit information in the lexical entries and
linguistic constraints on the correspondences. We have 1025 entries
several types of lexical nominalizations, including over 1000
words. These words were selected from lists of frequently appearing
in our corpus (which includes Brown and the Wall Street Journal).
are multiple entries for certain graphonyms. For example,
has two NOMLEX entries ("deduction1" and "deduction2"), one
to the verb "deduct" and the other corresponding to the verb
We released the alpha version of NOMLEX on January 15, 1999, a small
to the alpha version (the Alpha 2 version) on March 12, 1999.
the 2001 version was released on October 19, 2001. The latter
downloadable from this website (see below) and freely available for
by all. We would appreciate feedback from this usage to
A sample entry follows:
(nom :orth "promotion"
:verb-subj ((n-n-mod) (det-poss))
:verb-subc ((nom-np :object ((det-poss)(n-n-mod)(pp-of)))
(nom-np-as-np :object ((det-poss) (pp-of)))
(nom-possing :nom-subc ((p-possing :pval ("of"))))
(nom-np-pp :object ((det-poss) (n-n-mod) (pp-of))
:pval ("into" "from" "for" "to"))
(nom-np-pp-pp :object ((det-poss) (n-n-mod) (pp-of))
:pval ("for" "into" "to") :pval2 ("from"))))
Many nominalization appear with support verbs: "launch an attack",
"take a walk". We have designed a extended nominalization entry
which captures information about these support verbs (Proteus
Project Memorandum 02-005).
We are now starting a project to annotate all the nominalizations
in the Penn Tree Bank; this will allow us to extend and validate
the entries in NOMLEX
NOMLEX is available in two forms:
This project is funded by the National Science Foundation under
NOMLEX update in NOMBANK
As part of the Nombank project, a semi-automatic version of
NOMLEX was created with over 7000 entries (NOMLEX-PLUS) and
several other NOMLEX-like dictionaries were created as well, e.g.,
ADJADV (which maps ADJECTIVES to corresponding adjectives).
Details and downloads are available from the NomBank site.
Details are discussed in the LREC 2004 paper The
Cross-Breeding of Dictionaries and the manual
NomBank Dictionaries. This work postdates
the Nomlex effort.
Meyers, Catherine Macleod, Roman Yangarber, Ralph Grishman, Leslie
Ruth Reeves. Using NOMLEX to Produce Nominalization Patterns for
Extraction. Coling-ACL98 workshop Proceedings: the Computational
of Nominals Montreal, Canada, August, 1998.
Macleod, Ralph Grishman, Adam Meyers, Leslie Barrett, Ruth
A Lexicon of Nominalizations. Proceedings of EURALEX'98, Liege,
Macleod, Adam Meyers, Ralph Grishman, Leslie Barrett, Ruth
a Dictionary of Derived Nominals. Proceedings of Recent Advances
Language Processing, Tzigov Chark, Bulgaria, September, 1997.