Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
|Born||July 28, 1929
Southampton, New York, USA
|Died||May 19, 1994
New York, New York, USA
|Occupation||First Lady of the United States, later Doubleday editor|
|Successor||Lady Bird Johnson|
|Spouse||John F. Kennedy, Aristotle Onassis|
|Children||Arabella, Caroline, John, Patrick|
|Parents||John Vernou Bouvier III and Janet Norton Lee Bouvier (Auchincloss Morris)|
Jacqueline Lee Bouvier Kennedy Onassis (July 28, 1929 – May 19, 1994), known in the 1960s as Jackie Kennedy, and later as Jackie Onassis, was the wife of President John F. Kennedy, and First Lady of the United States from 1961 to 1963.
From the time of John F. Kennedy's election to the U.S. presidency in 1960, through his assassination in 1963, and for the rest of her life, Jackie's name and image were symbolic of social grace and elegance, beauty, glamour and fashion sense.
 Early life, family and education
Jacqueline Lee Bouvier was born in Southampton, New York, into New York society. She was the elder daughter of John Vernou Bouvier III (1891–1957) and Janet Norton Lee Bouvier (Auchincloss Morris) (1907–1989). She was of mostly Irish, Scottish and English descent; her French paternal ancestry is distant, with her last French ancestor being Michel Bouvier, a Philadelphia-based cabinetmaker who was her great-great-grandfather. In Washington, D.C., she briefly attended The Holton-Arms School (which has since moved to Bethesda, Maryland). Jacqueline was joined by a sister, Caroline Lee, in 1933. Her father, nicknamed "Black Jack", was a playboy stockbroker whose womanizing led to his eventual divorce from Janet when Jackie was a young girl. While Black Jack never remarried, Janet married, as her second husband, Standard Oil heir Hugh D. Auchincloss, Jr. (In her later years, she married thirdly, Bingham Morris.)
As a child, Jacqueline became a well-trained equestrienne and began a lifelong love affair with horseback riding. She won several trophies and medals for her riding, and the ample land at the Auchincloss's Hammersmith Farm gave her something to appreciate. She loved reading, painting, writing poems, and shared a warm relationship with her father. Her relationship with her mother, though, was often distant.
Jacqueline attended elementary and middle school at The Chapin School in Manhattan, New York, and then college preparatory school at Miss Porter's School in Farmington, Connecticut. She began her college education at Vassar College, in Poughkeepsie, New York, and was named "Debutante of the Year" for the 1947–48 season. During her junior year at Vassar, Jacqueline studied abroad at the Sorbonne in Paris. When she returned home, she decided not to return to Vassar for her senior year, and instead transferred to George Washington University, in Washington D.C., where she graduated with a degree in French Literature.
In 1951, Jacqueline took her first job as the "Inquiring Camera Girl" for The Washington Times-Herald. Her job was to ask witty questions of the people she met in Washington, D.C. The questions and amusing responses would then appear alongside the interviewee's photograph in the newspaper. One of Jacqueline's subjects for this assignment was a young Massachusetts Senator: John F. Kennedy.
 Kennedy marriage
Jacqueline was engaged to a young stockbroker, John Husted, in December 1951. However, this engagement was called off in March 1952, at the advice of Jackie's mother, Janet, who felt Husted was not affluent enough. Years later, Jacqueline's explanation of the engagement's end was that she and Husted were not very serious.
Jacqueline met Senator John F. Kennedy at a dinner party in Washington on May 10, 1952. The dinner party was organized by mutual friends, Martha and Charles Bartlett. Hoping to talk to Jacqueline privately after dinner, Kennedy followed her outside. When he arrived at her 1947 black Mercury convertible, he turned around upon seeing a man leaning on the car. As it turned out, the man was an acquaintance of Jacqueline’s who just happened by and, recognizing her car, decided to wait for her to come out so he could say hello. He had no idea he had stymied a lot of hard work by the Bartletts, who had hoped to set up John and Jacqueline. Nine months later, the Bartletts hosted another party, reintroducing John and Jacqueline again, but this time, Kennedy asked Jacqueline to join him on a double date the following weekend. They went to a carnival in Georgetown. Upon Jacqueline's meeting Senator John Kennedy again, they began dating, and so their romance progressed into engagement and finally marriage.
The announcement of the couple's engagement did not result in universal delight within the Bouvier family. According to an article in Time magazine, "[Jacqueline] telephoned me to tell me the news," Black Jack Bouvier's sister Maude Bouvier Davis explained, "but she said, 'You can't say anything about it because the Saturday Evening Post is about to come out with an article on Jack called "The Senate's Gay Young Bachelor," and this would spoil it.'" Another aunt, Michelle Bouvier Putnam, was dismissive of the media hubbub surrounding the forthcoming nuptials, saying, "The whole Kennedy clan is unperturbed by publicity. We feel differently about it. Their clan is totally united; ours is not."
Jacqueline Bouvier and John F. Kennedy married on September 12, 1953, at Newport, Rhode Island. The bride's gown and the bridesmaids' dresses were made by Ann Lowe, a well-known black fashion designer; the reception was held at Hammersmith Farm, with guests numbering nearly 2,000 people. After the wedding, they returned to Washington D.C. Unfortunately, early on in their marriage, Senator Kennedy suffered crippling pain in his back from a wartime injury and he had two operations. As he was recovering from surgery, Mrs. Kennedy encouraged him to write a book, Profiles in Courage, which is about several U.S. senators who had risked their careers to fight for the things in which they believed. The book was awarded the Pulitzer Prize for biography in 1957.
After a miscarriage in 1955, they had four children together: Arabella Kennedy (stillborn, 1956), Caroline Bouvier Kennedy (born. 1957), John Fitzgerald Kennedy Jr. (1960–1999), and Patrick Bouvier Kennedy (August 7—August 9, 1963).
|Arabella Kennedy||1956||1956||Stillborn daughter; buried along with her mother when she died in 1994.|
|Caroline Bouvier Kennedy||November 27, 1957||Married to Edwin Schlossberg; had issue. She is the only surviving child as of 2006.|
|John Fitzgerald Kennedy Jr.||November 25, 1960||July 16, 1999||Married to Carolyn Bessette; died in plane crash.|
|Patrick Bouvier Kennedy||August 7, 1963||August 9, 1963||Died from hyaline membrane disease, which is now more commonly called respiratory distress syndrome.|
The marriage had its problems arising from John F. Kennedy's affairs and debilitating health problems, both of which were hidden from the public. Jacqueline spent a lot of time and money early in their marriage redecorating their home or shopping for clothes (which in these early days were often Scaasi).
They spent their first years of marriage in a townhouse on N Street in Georgetown, Washington, D.C..
Jacqueline was fond of her father-in-law, Joseph P. Kennedy, and the affection was returned. He saw the great PR potential of her as a politician's wife. She was also close to her brother-in-law, Robert ("Bobby"). Yet she was not fond of the competitive, sporty, and somewhat abrasive nature of the Kennedy clan. She was quieter and more reserved. The Kennedy sisters nicknamed her "the deb," and Jacqueline was always reluctant to join in the traditional family touch-football games. Once, she broke her leg in a game of baseball with them.
 First Lady of the United States
In January 1960, Senator John F. Kennedy announced his candidacy for the United State's presidency, and began working very long hours and traveling all around the country. A few weeks before her husband’s campaign for President, Jacqueline learned that she was pregnant and her doctors instructed her to remain at home. From home Jacqueline helped her husband, answering thousands of campaign letters, taping TV commercials, giving interviews and writing a weekly newspaper column, Campaign Wife, which was distributed across the country. In the general election on November 8, 1960, John F. Kennedy narrowly beat Republican Richard M. Nixon in the 1960 presidential election, and became the 35th President of the United States in 1961. Jacqueline Kennedy became one of the youngest First Ladies in history. She had taken an active role in the campaign, even speaking to grocery store shoppers over the PA system in one town. West Virginia hit her the hardest as she had not witnessed this kind of poverty before. Later, in the White House, when the need for new glassware came up, Jackie suggested a company from the impoverished state supply it.
As First Lady (a title she wasn't fond of, saying it sounded like a saddle horse), she was forced into the public spotlight with everything in her life under scrutiny. Jacqueline knew her children would be in the public eye, yet she was determined to protect them from the press and give them a normal childhood. She allowed very few photographs to be taken of them yet when she was gone, the President would let the White House photographer Cecil Stoughton snap away.
Due in part to her French ancestry, Jacqueline had always felt a bond with France which was reinforced by her schooling there. This was a love that would later be reflected in many aspects of her life, such as the menus she chose for White House state dinners and her taste in clothing. She had also invited artists, writers, scientists, poets, and musicians alike to mingle with politicians, diplomats, and statesmen. She spoke French, Spanish, and Italian fluently, and she preferred her name to be pronounced in the French fashion (IPA: /ʒaklin/). She had a strong preference for French haute couture clothes designers, but these clothes were expensive, and she feared wearing them might be perceived as disloyalty to American designers. She often got around such restrictions by having American dressmakers like Chez Ninon in New York copy or adapt contemporary French designs for her. For her state wardrobe, she chose the Hollywood designer Oleg Cassini. During her days as First Lady, she would become a fashion icon domestically and internationally. When the Kennedys visited France, she impressed Charles de Gaulle and the French public with her French. At the conclusion of the visit, Time magazine seemed delighted with the First Lady and noted, "There was also that fellow who came with her." Even President Kennedy joked, "I am the man who accompanied Jacqueline Kennedy to Paris-and I have enjoyed it!" President De Gaulle was not the only leader who took a liking to Jacqueline, as she charmed many heads of state. When Soviet Premier Nikita S. Khrushchev was asked to shake President Kennedy's hand for a photo, the Communist leader said, "I'd like to shake her hand first." 
 White House restoration
The restoration of the White House was Jacqueline's first major project. She was dismayed during her pre-inauguration tour of the Executive Mansion, which was conducted by Mamie Eisenhower. The rooms were furnished with undistinguished pieces that lacked a sense of history. Her first efforts, begun her first day in residence (with the help of society decorator Sister Parish), were to make the family quarters attractive and suitable for family life and included the addition of a kitchen on the family floor and rooms for her children. Upon almost immediately exhausting the funds appropriated for this effort, she established a fine arts committee to oversee and fund the restoration process; she also asked early American furniture expert Henry du Pont and French interior designer Stephane Boudin to consult on the restoration. Her skillful management of this project was hardly noted at the time, except in terms of gossipy shock at repeated repainting of a room, or the high cost of the antique Zuber wallpaper panels installed in the family dining room ($12,000 in donated funds), but later accounts have noted that she managed the conflicting agendas of Parish, du Pont, and Boudin with seamless success; she initiated the revision of the White House guidebook, whose sales further funded the restoration; she initiated a Congressional bill establishing that White House furnishings would be the property of the Smithsonian Institute, rather than available to departing ex-presidents to claim as their own; and she wrote personal requests to those who owned pieces of historical interest that might be donated to the White House. On February 14, 1962, Mrs. Kennedy took American television viewers on a tour of the White House with Charles Collingwood of CBS.
 Tour of India and Pakistan
At the urging of President Kennedy's ambassador to India John Kenneth Galbraith Mrs. Kennedy undertook a tour of India and Pakistan, taking her sister Lee Radziwill along with her, which was amply documented in photojournalism of the time as well as in the journals and memoirs of Professor Galbraith. At the time, Ambassador Galbraith noted a considerable disjunction between Mrs Kennedy's widely-noted concern with clothes and other frivolity and, on personal acquaintance, her considerable intellect. In Lahore, President Ayub Khan presented Mrs Kennedy with a subsequently much-photographed horse, Sardar (the Hindi/Urdu term meaning `leader' also used for a Sikh); subsequently this gift was widely misattributed to the king of Saudi Arabia, including in the various recollections of the Kennedy White House years by President Kennedy's friend the Newsweek and subsequently Washington Post journalist and editor Benjamin Bradlee. It has never become clear whether this general misattribution of the gift was mere carelessness or a deliberate effort to deflect attention from the USA's preference for Pakistan over India during the years when India under Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru (whom President Kennedy strongly eschewed) was attempting to forge a policy of non-alignment vis-a-vis the USA and the Soviet Union, whereas American and western public opinion in general was sympathetic to India. At the same time, she had a friendly chat with Iranian Empress Farah Pahlavi.
Mrs. Kennedy planned numerous social events that brought the First Couple into the Nation's cultural spotlight. This appreciation for art, music, and culture marked a new chapter in American history. Jackie's skill at entertaining gave White House events the reputation of being magical. For instance, she orchestrated a dinner at Mt Vernon in honor of President Ayub Khan, whom President Kennedy wanted to honor for his role in supporting the U.S in a recent crisis; she banished large U-shaped dining tables, replacing them with round tables that seated eight. Her social graces were legendary, as can be noted from the way she communicated with De Gaulle in Paris and Nikita Kruschev in Vienna. The President's summit turned out to be a disaster, but the Premier's enjoyment of Mrs. Kennedy's company was subsequently deemed one of the few positive outcomes.
 Kennedy assassination
After Patrick's death in August 1963, Jackie kept a low profile at the White House. She made her first official appearance in November when President Kennedy asked her to travel to Texas with him for campaign purposes. She was sitting next to him when he was shot and killed in the Dallas motorcade on November 22, 1963 , while passing the cheering crowds. She led the nation in mourning during as the President lay in state at the U.S. Capitol, during the funeral service at St. Matthew's Cathedral, and finally, while lighting the eternal flame at her husband's grave at Arlington National Cemetery. The London Evening Standard reported: "Jacqueline Kennedy has given the American people ... one thing they have always lacked: majesty."
Following the assassination, she was forced to step back from the official public view. She was spared the ordeal of appearing at the trial of Lee Harvey Oswald, due to his death on November 24, 1963 at the hands of Jack Ruby, a nightclub owner who killed Oswald while he was in police custody.
 Life following the assassination
A week after the assassination, she was interviewed by Theodore White of Life magazine. In that interview, she compared the Kennedy years in the White House to King Arthur's mythical Camelot, after the Lerner and Loewe musical then playing on Broadway, telling White that John had loved the show. She also told White, "Now he is a legend when he would have preferred to be a man."
The courage of Jacqueline Kennedy during the assassination and funeral won her admiration around the world, and many Americans remember her best for her gallantry during those four days in November, 1963. Following the assassination, she and her children remained in their quarters in the White House for two weeks, preparing to vacate. After living in the Georgetown section of Washington through the winter of 1964, she decided to purchase a luxury apartment on Fifth Avenue in New York in the hope of having more privacy. She spent a year in mourning, making no public appearances, then zealously guarded her privacy. During this time, her daughter Caroline told her schoolteacher that her mother cried all the time.
She perpetuated her husband's memory by visiting his grave site on important anniversaries and attending selected memorial dedications. These included the 1967 christening of the Navy aircraft carrier named USS John F. Kennedy in Newport News, Virginia, and a memorial in Hyannis Port, Massachusetts. In May, 1965, Jacqueline Kennedy and Queen Elizabeth II jointly dedicated the United Kingdom's official memorial to President Kennedy at Runnymede, England. This memorial included several acres of soil given in perpetuity from Britain to the USA on the meadow where the Magna Carta had been signed by King John in 1215.
She oversaw plans for the establishment of the John F. Kennedy Library, which is the repository for official papers of the Kennedy Administration. Original plans to have the library situated in Cambridge, Massachusetts, near Harvard University, proved problematic for various reasons. The library, designed by I.M. Pei, includes a museum and was dedicated in Boston in 1979 by President Carter, nearly 16 years after the assassination. The governments of many nations donated money to erect the library, in addition to corporate and private donations.
 Onassis marriage
On October 20, 1968, Jacqueline Kennedy married Aristotle Onassis, a Greek shipping tycoon, on Skorpios, Greece. Four and a half months earlier her brother-in-law, Senator Robert F. Kennedy, had been assassinated in Los Angeles. At that point, Jacqueline decided the Kennedys were being "targeted," and that she and her children had to leave the United States. Marriage to Onassis appeared to make sense: he had the money and power to give her the protection she wanted, while she had the social cachet he craved. He ended his affair with opera diva Maria Callas to marry her. Jackie gave up Secret Service protection and franking privilege, to which a widow of a president of the United States is entitled, after her marriage to Onassis.
For a time, the marriage brought her adverse publicity and seemed to tarnish the image of the grieving presidential widow. However, others viewed the marriage as a positive symbol of the "modern American woman" who would not be afraid to look after her own financial interests and to protect her family. The marriage initially seemed successful, but stresses soon became apparent. The couple rarely spent time together. Though Onassis got along with Caroline and John, Jr. (his son Alexander introduced John to flying; ironically, both would die in plane crashes), Jacqueline did not get along with step-daughter Christina Onassis. She spent most of her time traveling and shopping.
Onassis was in the early stages of filing for divorce when he died on March 15, 1975; Jacqueline was with her children in New York. Her legacy was severely limited by a rumored prenuptial agreement and by legislation that Onassis had caused the Greek government to approve, which limited how much a non-Greek surviving spouse could inherit. Jacqueline eventually accepted Christina's offer of $26,000,000, waiving all other claims to the Onassis estate.
 Invasion of privacy
When a paparazzo photographed Jackie Onassis nude on a Greek island, Hustler publisher Larry Flynt bought the photos and published them in the August 1975 issue, much to her and the Kennedy family's embarrassment, though to the considerable amusement of Rose Fitzgerald Kennedy. The pictures, taken with powerful telephoto lenses, were somewhat fuzzy, but clearly show Jackie's breasts, her buttocks, and pubic hair. The depiction of the pubic hair was considered especially shocking. During this period, the media informally rechristened her Jackie O.
 Final years
Following Onassis's death in 1975, Jacqueline became a widow a second time. Now that her children were older, she decided to find work that would be fulfilling to her. Since she had always enjoyed writing and literature, Jacqueline accepted a job offer as an editor at Doubleday, living in New York City, Martha's Vineyard and the Kennedy Compound in Hyannis, Massachusetts. From the mid 1970s until her death, her companion was Maurice Tempelsman, a Belgian-born industrialist and diamond merchant who was long separated from his wife. Among the many books she edited was Larry Gonick's The Cartoon History of the Universe. He expressed his gratitude in the acknowledgements in Volume 2. Jacqueline Onassis's continuing charisma is indicated by the delight the Canadian author Robertson Davies took in discovering that at a commencement exercise at an American university at which he was being honored, Jacqueline Kennedy was on hand, circulating among the honorees. On the other hand, her efforts on behalf of Doubleday to enlist Frank Sinatra, the Duchess of Windsor and Queen Elizabeth II as Doubleday authors were firmly rebuffed.
Jacqueline Onassis also appreciated the contributions of African-American writers to the American literary canon and encouraged Dorothy West, her neighbor on Martha's Vineyard and the last surviving member of the Harlem Renaissance, to complete The Wedding: a multi-generational story about race, class, wealth, and power in the United States. The novel received great literary acclaim when it was published by Doubleday in 1995 and Oprah Winfrey introduced the story in 1998 to millions of Americans via a television film of the same name starring Halle Berry. Dorothy West acknowledged Jacqueline Onassis's kind encouragement in the frontispiece.
In January 1994, Onassis was diagnosed with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, a form of cancer. Her diagnosis was announced to the public in February. The family was initially optimistic, and she stopped smoking at the insistance of her daughter. Onassis continued her work with Doubleday, but curtailed her schedule greatly. By April 1994, the cancer had spread, and she made her last trip home from Cornell hospital on May 18, 1994. A large crowd of wellwishers, tourists, and reporters gathered on the street outside her penthouse apartment at 1040 Fifth Avenue, and she died in her sleep at 10:15 pm on Friday, May 19, at the age of 64.
 Legacy and memorials
As a concession to a grieving world, audio of her private funeral, along with a special television broadcast, was broadcast around the world on May 23rd. She was buried beside her assassinated husband at the Arlington National Cemetery. At her funeral, her son, John, described three of her attributes as the love of words, the bonds of home and family, and her spirit of adventure.
Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis, throughout her life, sought to preserve and protect America’s cultural heritage. The results of her hard work can be viewed at Lafayette Square in Washington, D.C. While she was First Lady, she helped to stop the destruction of Lafayette Square, because she knew that these buildings were an important part of the nation’s capital and played an essential role in its history. Later, in New York City, she led a historic preservation campaign to save and renovate Grand Central Terminal, New York's beloved historic railroad station, from demolition. Today, more than 500,000 people each day pass through it and can enjoy its full beauty thanks to her restoration efforts. In the 1980s, she was a major figure in protests against a planned skyscraper at Columbus Circle which would have cast large shadows on Central Park.
From her apartment windows in New York she had a splendid view of a glass enclosed wing of the Metropolitan Museum of Art. The wing displays the Temple of Dendur, a gift from Egypt to the United States in gratitude for the generosity of the Kennedy administration, which had been instrumental in saving several temples and objects of Egyptian antiquity that would otherwise have been flooded after the construction of the Aswan Dam.
Many people will always remember how she captivated the attention of this nation and the rest of the world with her intelligence, beauty, and grace. With a deep sense of devotion to her family and country she dedicated herself to raising her children and to making the world a better place through art, literature, and a respect for history.
Like her assassinated husband, Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis's legacy has been memorialized in various aspects of American and non-American culture. They include:
- A high school called Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis High School for International Careers, was dedicated by New York City in 1995, in Jackie's honor. It is the only high school in the United States named in her honor.  It is located at 120 West 46th Street between Sixth and Seventh Avenues, and was formerly the High School for the Performing Arts.
- The Central Park's main reservoir was renamed in her honor, so it is called the Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis Reservoir. 
- The residence hall on the southeast corner at the intersection of I and 23rd Streets of the George Washington University had been renamed into Jacqueline Bouvier Kennedy Onassis Hall .
 In popular culture
There are many references to Jacqueline Bouvier Kennedy Onassis in popular culture:
- Punk rock band Strung Out wrote a song called "Jackie O" about her after her husbands assassination. The song was on their EP The Element of Sonic Defiance
- The punk band Human Sexual Response had a song called "Jackie Onassis" with the lyrics:
- First the world will call me Bouvier
- Then I'll change to Jackie K.
- After my date with tragedy
- I will let Aristotle take care of me
- I want to be Jackie Onassis oh yeah....
- Oh-o-oh I'd be happy to be Jackie
- I'd be happy to be Jackie
- I'd be happy to be Jackie
- Oh yeah
- Human Sexual Response's song inspired the Rage Against The Machine song "Tire me," Human Sexual Response. Jackie O. is mentioned along with an allusion to the death of JFK:
- "I wanna be Jackie Onassis
- I wanna wear a pair of dark sunglasses
- I wanna be Jackie O
- Oh oh oh oh please don't die!"
- The Wu-Tang Clan's song, I can't go to sleep on their album, The W, the RZA references her reaction to JFK's assassination as he raps about other Civil Rights leaders' deaths.
- Shel Silverstein's "One's On the Way" references Jacqueline Onassis with "And Jackie is seen dancin' at the latest disco."
- The 1972 Rod Stewart song "You Wear It Well" uses "Madame Onassis" as a marker of style and grace to be compared against.
- The opera Jackie O was composed by art-composer Michael Daugherty. It is a pop opera about sixties icons Andy Warhol, Maria Callas and Jackie Kennedy Onassis, and is sung in English.
- Jackie and her husband's assassination is the subject of the Tori Amos song, "Jackie's Strength."
- In the Seinfeld episode "The Chaperone", Elaine Benes interviewed for Jackie O's former job as editor at Doubleday. Though Elaine was not given the job at Doubleday, she was given a job by a former (fictional) friend of Jackie O's. The job was given to Elaine based primarily on the fact that the friend of Jackie O felt Elaine resembled his deceased friend. In the episode, Elaine is depicted as wearing large sunglasses and a scarf over her hair, in a style that had become synonymous with Jackie O's later days. In the episode, Elaine declares to Jackie O's friend, "I was a great admirer of Mrs. Onassis'."
- In the Family Guy episode "E. Peterbus Unum", Lois is dressed with a same pink suit that is worn by Jacqueline Kennedy, while giving the media the tour of Petoria.
- In the long-running series, The Simpsons, Marge Simpson's maiden name is Bouvier, and her mother's name is known to be Jacqueline, who is created by creator Matt Groening and writer George Meyer, and voiced by Julie Kavner. (Please see Jackie (TV) for information.) Similarly, the town's Mayor Quimby speaks with Kennedy-like inflections and has a wife who, when shown, constantly wears Jackie's famous pink Chanel suit, hairstyle and pillbox hat.
- In one of the season finales of Futurama, when Bender bought them for dinner at the restaurant, Amy is seen wearing the same outfit worn by Jacqueline Kennedy during her years as a First Lady.
- Jackie is also mentioned in the Spice Girls song, "Lady is a Vamp", in which the group sings "Jackie O., we loved her so/So did Mr. President, as far as we know."
- English electronica band Jackie Onassis released an EP on Rubber Family Records in 1995, one of the songs "Harmonium" was playlisted by John Peel.
- Marilyn Manson's Mechanical Animals contains references to both JFK and Jackie O. The song "Posthuman" contains the lyrics:
- "She's pilgrim and pagan
- Softworn and so-cial
- In all of her dreams
- She's a saint like Jackie-O"
- Marilyn Manson's music video for the song "Coma White" contains a reenactment of the JFK assassination, with Manson's then-girlfriend Rose McGowan playing Jackie.
- Third Eye Blind in their song "Anything" mention her several times (i.e. "Jackie O with the top down open".)
- Parker Posey played a character who referred to herself as "Jackie O" due to a fascination with the former first couple in the movie The House of Yes.
- In the short-lived TV show Popular the girls go to a fictional high school called Jacqueline Bouvier Kennedy High School.
- The Misfits' song "Bullet" describes a sexual fantasy about Jackie, beginning with the asassination of John F. Kennedy.
- Groop Dogdrill in their song "Jackie-O" mention her several times (i.e. "Just like Jackie-O!".)
- The comedian Bill Hicks claimed that "wearing a cross around your neck is kinda like going up to Jackie Onassis with a rifle pendant on." meaning that when Jesus returns to Earth, the last thing he will want to see is a Crucifix. Hicks often questioned why people wore the cross.
- In the film Rocky Horror Picture Show, Tim Curry's character Dr. Frankenfurter is dressed in a distinct Jackie O. style when the main characters first come up to his lab.
- In the Adult Swim show The Venture Bros., the character of Dr. Girlfriend resembles Jackie Onassis, but talks in a deep male voice. Doc Hammer, one of the writers of the show who provides the voice of Dr. Girlfriend, says he does her voice like that because of Jackie O's rather low voice for a woman.
- Jacki-O of TVT Records adapted the former Mrs. Kennedy's name and persona. When asked, she said she felt a real connection between herself and the former first lady.
- The Hold Steady mention Jackie Onassis in their song "Don't Let Me Explode" with the lyrics, "We didn't go to Dallas. 'Cause Jackie Onassis said that it ain't safe for Catholics yet. Think about what they pulled on Kennedy."
- In Kurt Vonnegut's "Galápagos" he identifies one of the intended cruise passengers as Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis. She turns out to be the celebrity who abandons the cruise before it leaves port.
- Mos Def's single "Ms. Fat Booty" compares the girl in the song to former supermodel and sportscaster Jayne Kennedy, not Jackie Kennedy.
- In Jay-Z's song "La La La" from the Bad Boys 2 Soundtrack, Jay proclaims (speaking about himself) "He patterned himself as the rap JFK, you wanna pass at my Jacqueline Onassis"
- The New Order single 1963 is based on "a theory that JFK was trying to get rid of his wife the day he got shot." New Order Online.
- The song "Hero Theme" by hip-hop group The Infesticons references Jackie with the lyrics, "...sweet and slow, like Jackie Onassis with Alzheimer's..."
- In the 2001 film Legally Blonde, the protagonist is left by her boyfriend with the following explanation: "If I'm going to be a senator, why, I need to marry a Jackie, not a Marilyn"
- Kill Hannah, a punk rock band, has written a song called "I Wanna Be A Kennedy" talking about being the Kennedys themselves.
- Andy Warhol's piece 16 Jackies uses four news images of Jackie Kennedy prior to, the day of and shortly after her husband's shooting.
- In 1990, the American band Concrete Blonde recorded a song by Andy Prieboy "Tomorrow Wendy" with the following reference to the assassination:
- Underneath the chilly gray November Sky
- We can make believe that Kennedy is still alive
- We're shooting for the moon and smiling Jackie's riding by....
- In the two-part Quantum Leap episode "Lee Harvey Oswald - Oct 5, 1957-Nov 22, 1963", Jackie Kennedy is played by actress Karen Ingram.
- In the critically-acclaimed 2000 film Thirteen Days Jacqueline Kennedy is portrayed by Stephanie Romanov.
- Cortnie Campbell portrayed Jacqueline Kennedy in a 1998 drama film called The End of a Dynasty where deals with the murder of Lee Harvey Oswald by nightclub owner Jack Ruby.
- In the 1992 film Love Field, the life of Dallas housewife Lurene Hallett revolves around Jacqueline Kennedy's actions. Jacqueline is played by actress Rhoda Griffis.
- Caprice Benedetti played Jacqueline Kennedy, a wife of John F. Kennedy in the 2002 science fiction film Timequest.
- Blind Melon include a reference to Jacqueline Kennedy-Onassis in their song "Dump Truck" with the following lyric:
- New York City
- Soothing my itchy, itchy month of may
- Time has passed for Ms. Onassis
- Decay on display
The companion book for the series of interviews between mythologist Joseph Campbell and Bill Moyers, The Power of Myth, was created under the direction of Onassis. The book's editor, Betty Sue Flowers, writes in the Editor's Note to The Power of Myth: "I am grateful...to Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis, the Doubleday editor, whose interest in the books of Joseph Campbell was the prime mover in the publication of this book." A year after her death in 1994, Moyers dedicated the companion book for his PBS series, The Language of Life to Onassis. The dedication read: To Jacqueline Onassis. As you sail on to Ithaka. Ithaka was a reference to the C.P. Cavafy poem that Maurice Tempelsman read at her funeral.
As of 2006, there are several actresses who have portrayed Jacqueline Bouvier Kennedy Onassis:
- Francesca Annis in Onassis: The Richest Man in the World
- Marianna Bishop in A Woman Named Jackie (Bishop played a young Jackie)
- Jacqueline Bisset in America's Prince: The John F. Kennedy Junior Story
- Blair Brown in the Kennedy miniseries
- Juanin Clay in the miniseries Robert Kennedy & His Times
- Margaret Colin in the play Jackie: An American Life
- Robin Curtis in LBJ: The Early Years
- Jennifer Dale in Hoover vs. the Kennedys: The Second Civil War
- Roma Downey in A Woman Named Jackie
- Sarah Michelle Gellar in A Woman Named Jackie (Gellar played a teenage Jackie)
- Jill Hennessy in Jackie, Joan and Ethel
- Cristine Rose in Trial of Lee Harvey Oswald, The
- Jaclyn Smith in Jacqueline Bouvier Kennedy
- Joanne Whalley in Jackie Bouvier Kennedy Onassis
- Jesalyn White in LBJ vs. the Kennedys: Chasing Demons
- Anna Valle in Callas e Onassis
 Books about
- Farewell, Jackie: A Portrait of Her Final Days, Edward Klein, Viking Books, 2004.
- All Too Human: The Love Story of Jack and Jackie Kennedy, St. Martin's Press, 2003.
- Just Jackie: Her Private Years, Ballatine Books, 1999.
- The Kennedy Curse: Why Tragedy Has Haunted America's First Family for 150 Years, Pocket Books, 1996.
- The Death of a President, by William Manchester, New York: Harper & Row Publishers, 1967.
- "What Would Jackie Do? An Inspired Guide to Distinctive Living," by Shelly Branch and Sue Callaway, Gotham Books, 2006.
- What Jackie Taught Us: Lessons from the Remarkable Life of Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis, Tina Santi Flaherty, 2005
- As We Remember Her: Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis in the Words of Her Family and Friends, Perigee Trade, 1997
 See also
- ^ Bissonnette, Anne, Curator for The Kent State University Museum Scaasi An American Icon retrieved June 29, 2006
- ^ Perry, Barbara A. Jacqueline Kennedy: First Lady of the New Frontier. University Press of Kansas: 2004.
- ^ McFadden, Robert D.. "DEATH OF A FIRST LADY; Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis Dies of Cancer at 64", The New York Times, 1994-05-20. Retrieved on 2006-09-24.
- ^ Arlington National Cemetery, ONCE MORE, A SERVICE IN ARLINGTON MRS. ONASSIS LAID TO REST BESIDE THE ETERNAL FLAME retrieved November 3, 2006
- ^ Department of Environmental Protection, DEP Unveils Signs Renaming Central Park Reservoir As Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis Reservoir, retrieved November 12, 2006
 External links
- Obituary, NY Times, May 20, 1994
- White House biography
- Unofficial biography
- Arlington Cemetery biographical information
- Jackie Handbook
- PDF file: Kennedy Assassination Chronicles (Fall 1995) - contains much of "the Camelot interview".
- National First Ladies' Library
- Last Will and Testament of Jackie Onassis
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