Bonnie and Clyde
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Bonnie Parker and Clyde Barrow were notorious robbers and criminals who travelled the central United States during the Great Depression. Their exploits were known nationwide. They captivated the attention of the American press and its readership during what is sometimes referred to as the "public enemy era" between 1931 and 1935. Though remembered as bank robbers, Clyde Barrow preferred to rob small stores or gas stations.
Though the public at the time believed Bonnie to be a full partner in the gang, the role of Bonnie Parker in the Barrow Gang crimes has long been a source of controversy. Gang members W.D. Jones and Ralph Fults testified that they never saw Bonnie fire a gun, and described her role as logistical. Jones' sworn statement was that "Bonnie never packed a gun, out of the five major gun battles I was with them she never fired a gun." Writing with Phillip Steele in The Family Story of Bonnie and Clyde, Marie Barrow, Clyde's youngest sister, made the same claim: "Bonnie never fired a shot. She just followed my brother no matter where he went."
In his article "Bonnie and Clyde: Romeo and Juliet in a Getaway Car", the noted writer Joseph Geringer explained part of their appeal to the public then, and their enduring legend now, by saying "Americans thrilled to their 'Robin Hood' adventures. The presence of a female, Bonnie, escalated the sincerity of their intentions to make them something unique and individual -- even at times heroic."
 Bonnie Parker
Bonnie Elizabeth Parker was born October 1, 1910, in Rowena, Texas, the second of three children. Her father, a bricklayer, died when Bonnie was four, prompting her mother to move with the children to West Dallas, where they lived in poverty. Bonnie was a precocious child. An honor roll student in high school where she excelled in creative writing, she won a County League contest in literary arts, for Cement City School, and even gave introductory speeches for local politicians. Described as intelligent and personable by those who knew her, yet also strong willed, she was an attractive young woman, petite at 4’11” (150 cm) and weighing only 90 pounds (41 kg).
On September 25, 1926, at age fifteen, she married Roy Thornton. The marriage was short-lived, and in January 1929 they parted ways. He was sentenced to five years in prison shortly thereafter. They never divorced; Bonnie was wearing Thornton's wedding ring when she died.
Bonnie Parker then met Clyde Barrow and the two immediately became enamored with one another. From then on she would remain a loyal companion to him as they carried out their crime spree and awaited the violent deaths they viewed as inevitable. Her fondness for creative writing and the arts found expression in poems such as "Suicide Sal" and "The Story of Bonnie and Clyde."
Jimmy Fowler of the Dallas Observer noted "although the authorities who gunned down the 23-year old in 1934 conceded that she was no bloodthirsty killer and that when taken into custody she tended to inspire the paternal aspects of the police who held her ... there was a mystifying devolution from the high school poet, speech class star, and mini-celebrity who performed Shirley Temple-like as a warm up act at the stump speeches of local politicians to the accomplice of rage-filled Clyde Barrow." 
 Clyde Barrow
Clyde "Champion" Chestnut Barrow was born on March 24, 1909 in Ellis County, Texas, near Telico just south of Dallas (some sources claim he was born in 1910). He was the fifth child of seven or eight children (the census is not clear, since some of the children were not living at home) in a poor farming family. Clyde was first arrested in late 1926, after running when police confronted him over a rental car he had failed to return on time. His second arrest, with brother Buck Barrow, came soon after — this time for possession of stolen goods (turkeys). In both of these instances there is the remote possibility that Clyde acted without criminal intent. Despite holding down "square" jobs during the period 1927 through 1929, however, he also cracked safes, burgled stores, and stole cars. Known primarily for robbing banks, he focused on smaller jobs, robbing grocery stores and filling stations at a rate far outpacing the ten to fifteen bank robberies attributed to him and the Barrow Gang. According to John Neal Phillips, Clyde's goal in life was not to gain fame and fortune from robbing banks, but to eventually seek revenge against the Texas prison system for the abuses he suffered while serving time. Contrary to the image of Warren Beatty as Clyde in the 1967 film, Philips writes that Clyde actually felt guilty about the people he killed.
 The pair meet
There is some disagreement over how Bonnie and Clyde first met, but the most prevalent story is that it was through Clyde's friend Clarence Clay. In another account, they met when he visited one of her girlfriends, who sent him to the kitchen to meet "a nice girl." All stories agree on one thing: it was love at first sight for them both.
By mid-February 1930, Clyde and Bonnie were seeing each other regularly, to the point where the police staked out her mother's house hoping to catch the wanted Barrow. They arrested him there, and he was sentenced to prison for two years (seven concurrent, two-year terms for burglary and auto theft). Except for a one-week escape ending with his recapture in Middletown, Ohio, Clyde remained incarcerated in the Texas state prison at Eastham Farm until early 1932. Fellow inmate Ralph Fults said that it was Eastham where Clyde turned "from a schoolboy to a rattlesnake".
After his release in 1932, Clyde moved to Massachusetts, purportedly to make a clean start. However, he returned to Texas within weeks, embroiled in a plan to raid Eastham prison and free associate Raymond Hamilton and others. He recruited help and set about arming and financing the operation.
In April, a night watchman saw Barrow and Ralph Fults breaking into a hardware store. They escaped after exchanging fire, rejoined Bonnie, and attempted to leave the "hot" area. The incident followed a pattern for Bonnie and Clyde that persisted until their deaths — desperate evasion at high speed down sometimes impassable roads, stealing cars and swapping stolen plates regularly. Though Clyde's driving skill and ability to evade capture were later grudgingly respected by law enforcement, this situation ended poorly, perhaps because the gang was finally reduced to stealing mules for transportation in the Texas farm country. Clyde escaped, and Bonnie and Fults were arrested. She claimed to have been kidnapped, and a grand jury failed to indict her. Having spent two months in the Kaufman, Texas jail, Bonnie returned to Dallas in June 1932, and was soon back on the road with Clyde.
 Buck joins the gang, life on the highway
During Bonnie's time in jail, Clyde had been the driver in a store robbery. The wife of the murder victim, when shown photos, picked Clyde as one of the shooters. In August 1932, while Bonnie was visiting her mother, Clyde and two associates were drinking alcohol at a dance in Oklahoma (illegal under Prohibition). When they were approached by the local sheriff and his undersheriff, Clyde opened fire, killing the undersheriff Eugene C. Moore. That was the first killing of a lawman by what was later known as the Barrow Gang, a total which would eventually amount to nine slain officers.
On March 22, 1933, Clyde's brother Buck was granted a full pardon and released from prison. By April, he and his wife Blanche were living with W.D. Jones, Clyde, and Bonnie in a temporary hideout in Joplin, Missouri—according to some accounts, merely to visit and attempt to talk Clyde into giving himself up. As was common with Bonnie and Clyde, their next brush with the law arose from their generally suspicious behavior, not because their identities were discovered. Not knowing what awaited them, local lawmen assembled only a two-car force to confront the suspected bootleggers living in the rented apartment over a garage. Though caught by surprise, Clyde, noted for remaining cool under fire, was gaining far more experience in gun battles than most lawmen. He and W.D. Jones quickly killed one lawman and fatally wounded another . The survivors later testified that their side had fired only fourteen rounds in the conflict.
Between 1932 and 1934, there were several incidents in which the Barrow Gang kidnapped lawmen or robbery victims, usually releasing them far from home, sometimes with money to help them get back.  Stories of these encounters may have contributed to the mythic aura of Bonnie and Clyde; a couple both reviled and adored by the public. Notoriously, the Barrow Gang would not hesitate to shoot anybody, civilian or lawman, if they got in the way of their escape. Clyde was a probable shooter in approximately ten murders. Other members of the Barrow Gang known or thought to have murdered are Raymond Hamilton, W.D. Jones, Buck Barrow, Joe Palmer, and Henry Methvin.
The Barrow Gang escaped the police at Joplin, but W.D. Jones was wounded, and they had left most of their possessions at the rented apartment — including a camera with an exposed roll of pictures. The film was developed by the Joplin Globe, and yielded many now famous photos, two of which are shown above. Afterward, Bonnie and Clyde used coats and hats to cover the license plates of their stolen vehicles when taking pictures.
Despite the glamorous image often associated with the Barrow Gang, they were desperate and discontent. A recently published manuscript provides Blanche Barrow's account of life on the run. Clyde was a machine behind the wheel, driving dangerous roads and searching for places where they might sleep or have a meal without being discovered. One member was always assigned watch. Short tempers led to regular arguments. Even with thousands of dollars from a bank robbery, sleeping in a bed was a luxury for a member of the Barrow Gang. Sleeping peacefully was nearly impossible.
 Platte City
In June 1933, while driving with W.D. Jones and Bonnie, Clyde missed some construction signs, dropping the car into a ravine. It rolled, and Bonnie was trapped beneath the burning car, suffering third degree burns to her left leg. After making their escape, Clyde insisted that Bonnie be allowed to convalesce. After meeting up with Blanche and Buck Barrow again, they stayed put until Buck bungled a local robbery with W.D. Jones, and killed a city marshal. On July 18, 1933, the gang checked into the Red Crown Tourist Court south of Platte City, Missouri (now within the city limits of Kansas City, Missouri across I-29 from Kansas City International Airport). The courts consisted of two brick cabins joined by two single-car garages. The gang rented two cabins near Platte City, Missouri on the evening of July 18, 1933. Several yards to the south stood the Red Crown Tavern, managed by Neal Houser. Houser became interested in the group when Blanche paid for dinners and beer with silver instead of dollars.
When Blanche went into town to purchase bandages and atropine sulfate to treat Bonnie's leg  the druggist contacted Sheriff Holt Coffee, who put the cabins under watch. Coffee had been alerted by Oklahoma, Texas and Arkansas to be on the lookout for strangers seeking such supplies. The sheriff contacted Captain Baxter of the highway patrol, who called for reinforcements from Kansas City including an armored car. At 11 p.m. that night, Sheriff Coffee led a group of officers armed with Thompson submachine guns toward the cabins. But the submachine guns proved no match for the Browning Automatic Rifles of the Barrows, who had recently robbed an armory.  Although the gang escaped once again, Buck Barrow was shot in the side of the head, and Blanche was nearly blinded from glass fragments in her eye.  The prospects for holding out against the ensuing manhunt dwindled.
On July 24, 1933, the Barrow Gang was at Dexfield Park, an abandoned amusement park near Dexter, Iowa. After being noticed by local citizens, it was determined that the campers were the Barrows. Surrounded by local lawmen and approximately one hundred spectators, the Barrows once again found themselves under fire. Clyde, Bonnie, and W.D. Jones escaped on foot. Buck was shot in the back and his wife hit again in the face and eyes with flying glass. Buck died five days later at Kings Daughters Hospital in Iowa of pneumonia after surgery.
 Final run
In January 1934, Clyde finally made his long awaited move against the Texas Department of Corrections. In the famous "Eastham Breakout" of 1934, Clyde's lifetime goal appeared to come true, as he masterminded the escape of Henry Methvin, Raymond Hamilton and several others.  The Texas Department of Corrections received national negative publicity over the jailbreak, and Clyde appeared to have achieved what Phillips describes as the burning passion in his life — revenge on the Texas Department of Corrections.
It was an expensive revenge, as the killing of a guard (by Joe Palmer) brought the full power of the Texas and federal governments to bear on the manhunt for Bonnie and Clyde, ultimately resulting in their deaths. As the guard, Major Crowson, lay dying, Lee Simmons of the Texas Department of Corrections reportedly promised him every person involved in the breakout would be hunted down and killed. He kept his word, except for Henry Methvin, whose life was exchanged in return for betraying Bonnie and Clyde. The Texas Department of Corrections then contacted legendary retired manhunter and Texas Ranger Captain Frank A. Hamer, and convinced him to accept a commission to hunt down the Barrow Gang. Though technically retired,  Hamer was the only retired Ranger in history to have been allowed to keep an active Ranger commission, as displayed in the state archives in Austin, Texas. He accepted the assignment immediately, though not as a Ranger but as a Texas Highway Patrol officer seconded to the prison system as a special investigator, tasked specifically to hunt down Bonnie and Clyde, and the Barrow Gang.
Clyde and Henry Methvin killed two young highway patrolmen near Grapevine, Texas, on April 1, 1934; an eyewitness account stated that Methvin fired the lethal shots. John Treherne exhaustively investigated this shooting, and found that Methvin fired the first shot, after assuming Clyde wanted them killed (though Treherne found, and Melvin later admitted Clyde did not intend to kill them, but had been preparing to capture them and take them on one of his famous rides). Having little choice once Methvin had begun a gun battle with law officers, Clyde then fired at the second officer, but Methvin is believed to have been the primary killer of both. Bonnie had actually approached the dying officers to try to help them.  Ted Hinton's son states that Bonnie was actually asleep in the back seat when Methvin started the gun battle and took no part in it.  It is notable that in accepting a pardon for these killings, Methvin admitted to both.  These particularly senseless killings shocked and outraged the public, which to this point had tended to romanticize Bonnie and Clyde. Another policeman Constable William Campbell was killed five days later near Commerce, Oklahoma, which further soured public sentiment.
Bonnie and Clyde were killed May 23, 1934, on a desolate road near their Bienville Parish, Louisiana, hideout. They were shot by a posse of four Texas and two Louisiana officers (the Louisiana pair added solely for jurisdictional reasons — see below).
The posse was led by Hamer, who began tracking the pair on February 10, 1934. Having never before seen Bonnie or Clyde, he immediately arranged a meeting with a representative of Methvin's parents in the hope of gaining a lead. Meanwhile, federal officials —who viewed the Eastham prison break in particular as a national embarrassment to the government— were providing all support that was asked for, such as weapons (when Hamer requested Browning Automatic Rifles and 20 round magazines with armour piercing rounds, they were given to him at once despite being military weapons. 
Hamer studied Bonnie and Clyde's movements and found they swung in a circle skirting the edges of five midwest states, exploiting the "state line" rule that prevented officers from one jurisdiction from pursuing a fugitive into another. Bonnie and Clyde were masters of that pre-FBI rule but consistent in their movements, allowing them to see their families and those of their gang members. Unfortunately for them, it also allowed an experienced manhunter like Hamer to chart their path and predict where they would go. They were due next to see Henry Methvin's family, which explains Hamer's meeting with them within a month of beginning the hunt.
On May 21, 1934, the four posse members from Texas were in Shreveport, Louisiana when they learned that Bonnie and Clyde were to go there that evening with Methvin. Clyde had designated Methvin's parents' Bienville Parish house as a rendezvous in case they were later separated. Methvin was separated from Bonnie and Clyde in Shreveport, and the full posse, consisting of Capt. Hamer, Dallas County Sheriff's Deputies Bob Alcorn and Ted Hinton (who had met Clyde in the past), former Texas Ranger B. M. "Manny" Gault, Bienville Parish Sheriff Henderson Jordan, and his deputy Prentiss Oakley, set up an ambush at the rendezvous point along Highway 154, between Gibsland and Sailes. They were in place by 9:00 p.m. and waited through the next day (May 22) but saw no sign of Bonnie and Clyde.
At approximately 9:10 a.m. on May 23 the posse, concealed in the bushes and almost ready to concede defeat, heard Clyde's stolen Ford V8 approaching. The posse's official report has Clyde stopping to speak with Henry Methvin's father — planted there with his truck that morning to distract Clyde and force him into the lane closest to the posse — the lawmen opened fire, killing Bonnie and Clyde while shooting a combined total of approximately 130 rounds. The posse, under Hamer's direct orders, did not call out a warning, or order the duo to surrender. Clyde was killed instantly from Oakley's initial head shot. Bonnie did not die as easily as Clyde. The posse reported her uttering a long, horrified scream as the bullets tore into the car.  The officers emptied the specially-ordered automatic rifles, as well as shotguns and pistols at the car. According to Ten Hinton's and Bob Alcorn's statement to the Dallas Dispatch on May 24, 1934: "Each of us six officers had a shotgun and an automatic rifle and pistols. We opened fire with the automatic rifles. They were emptied before the car got even with us. Then we used shotguns ... There was smoke coming from the car, and it looked like it was on fire. After shooting the shotguns, we emptied the pistols at the car, which had passed us and ran into a ditch about 50 yards on down the road. It almost turned over. We kept shooting at the car even after it stopped. We weren't taking any chances."  Following the ambush, officers inspected the vehicle and discovered a small arsenal of weapons including stolen automatic rifles, semi-automatic shotguns, assorted handguns, and several thousand rounds of ammunition, along with fifteen different license plates from various states.
When later asked why he killed a woman who was not wanted for any capital offense, Hamer stated "I hate to bust the cap on a woman, especially when she was sitting down, however if it wouldn't have been her, it would have been us." 
Bonnie and Clyde wished to be buried side by side, but the Parker family would not allow it. Bonnie's mother had wanted to grant her daughter's final wish, which was to be brought home, but the mobs surrounding the Parker house made that impossible. Over 20,000 people turned out for Bonnie's funeral, making it difficult for the Parkers to reach the grave site.  Clyde Barrow is buried in the Western Heights Cemetery, and Bonnie Parker in the Crown Hill Memorial Park, both in Dallas, Texas. The bullet-riddled Ford in which Bonnie and Clyde were killed, and the shirt Clyde wore the last day of his life, are currently on display (February 2006) at the Primm Valley Resort in Primm, Nevada.
 Controversy and aftermath
Controversy lingers over certain aspects of the ambush, and the way Hamer conducted it. Historians and writers, such as E. R. Milner, Phillips, Treherne have turned up no warrants against Bonnie for any violent crimes.  FBI files contain only one warrant against her, for aiding Clyde in the interstate transportation of a stolen vehicle.  The only claim that Bonnie ever fired a weapon during one of the gang's crimes came from Blanche Barrow, and is backed by an article from the Lucerne, Indiana newspaper on May 13, 1933. No charges were ever taken out on either woman for the alleged act. By this account, Bonnie would have been firing a "machine [sic] gun."
Historians and writers have questioned whether Hamer should have given the order to fire, without warning, prior to the car's arrival. In the years after, Prentiss Oakley is reported to have been troubled by his actions.  He was the only posse member to publicly express regret for his actions. The posse, including Frank Hamer, took and kept for themselves stolen guns that were found in the death car. Personal items such as Bonnie's clothing and a saxophone were also taken, and when the Parker family asked for them back, Hamer refused. These items were also later sold as souvenirs.
In a grisly aftermath, the men who were left to guard the bodies (Gault, Oakley, and Alcorn) allowed people to cut off bloody locks of Bonnie's hair and tear pieces from her dress, which were sold as souvenirs. Hinton returned to find a man trying to cut off Clyde's finger, and was sickened by what was occurring.  The coroner, arriving on the scene, saw the following: "nearly everyone had begun collecting souvenirs such as shell casings, slivers of glass from the shattered car windows, and bloody pieces of clothing from the garments of Bonnie and Clyde. One eager man had opened his pocket knife, and was reaching into the car to cut off Clyde's left ear." The coroner enlisted Hamer for help controlling the "circus-like atmosphere," and only then did people move away from the car.
After Ted Hinton's death, his son published an account of the ambush radically different from anything stated before. According to Hinton Jr., the posse had tied Henry Methvin's father to a tree the night before the ambush, to keep him from possibly warning the duo off. Methvin Sr.'s cooperation with authorities was a lie, according to Hinton, which Hamer came up with to keep from getting in trouble for kidnapping an unwanted citizen. Hinton Jr. claims Hamer made Methvin Sr. a deal: keep quiet about being tied up, and his son would be pardoned for the murder of the two young highway patrolmen. (Hamer did indeed obtain this pardon for Methvin Jr.) Hinton Jr. claimes Hamer then made every member of the posse swear they would never divulge this secret.
Blanche Barrow's injuries left her permanently blinded in her left eye. After the 1933 shoot-out that left her husband mortally wounded, she was taken into custody on the charge of "Assault With Intent to Kill." She was sentenced to ten years in prison but was paroled in 1939 for good behavior. She returned Dallas, leaving her life of crime in the past, and lived with her invalid father as his caregiver. She married Eddie Frasure in 1940, worked as a taxi cab dispatcher, and completed the terms of her parole one year later. She lived in peace with her husband until he died of cancer in 1969. Warren Beatty approached her to purchase the rights to her name for use in the film Bonnie and Clyde. While she agreed to the original script, she objected to the final re-write that was used in production, stating that Estelle Parsons portrayed her as "a screaming horse's ass." Despite this, she maintained a firm friendship with Beatty. She died from cancer at the age of 77 on 24 December 1988, and was buried in Dallas's Grove Hill Memorial Park under the name "Blanche B. Frasure" . Her memoirs, My Life With Bonnie and Clyde were published in 2004 (ISBN 0-8061-3715-0).
Every year near the anniversary of the ambush, a "Bonnie and Clyde Festival" is hosted in the town of Gibsland, Louisiana. The ambush location, still comparatively isolated on Highway 154 south of Gibsland, is commemorated by a stone marker that has been defaced to near illegibility by souvenir thieves and gunshot. A small metal version was added to accompany the stone monument. It was stolen, as was its replacement.
 Popular culture
Bonnie and Clyde were among the first celebrity criminals of the modern era, and their legend has proven durable. Certainly Bonnie knew how to enhance the pair's popular appeal by manipulating the media, and newspapers were quick to publish her poem "The Story of Bonnie and Clyde". Her other poems, especially "Suicide Sal," show her flair for an underworld vernacular that owes much to the detective magazines she read avidly. According to Geringer, Bonnie appealed to the out of work and generally disenfranchised third of America shattered by the Depression, who saw the duo as Robin Hood-like. Milner put their appeal this way: "By the time Bonnie and Clyde became well known, many had felt the capitalistic system had been abused by big business and government officials... Now here were Bonnie and Clyde striking back." In an A&E Network-produced Biography on the two bandits, historian Jonathan Davis expresses a similar thought, pointing out that "Anybody who robbed banks or fought the law were really living out some secret fantasies on a large part of the public." 
The advertising industry took note of the pair's appeal. When a letter signed "Clyde Champion Barrow" was sent to the Ford Motor Company, praising their "dandy car", Ford used it in car advertisements. Although the handwriting in this letter has never been authenticated, the same use was made of a similar letter Ford received around the same time from someone claiming to be John Dillinger.
In 1967, Arthur Penn directed a romanticized film version of the tale. Bonnie and Clyde, which starred Warren Beatty and Faye Dunaway, was critically acclaimed and contributed significantly to the glamorous image of the criminal pair.
The lead characters of Mickey and Mallory in the 1994 Oliver Stone film, Natural Born Killers bear many similarities to Bonnie and Clyde, particularly in the media attention that the pair received for their crimes.
In a 1994 second season episode of Lois and Clark: The New Adventures of Superman, entitled "That Old Gang of Mine", a scientist brings Bonnie and Clyde back from the dead and the two commit crime in modern-day Metropolis.
Popular music has also done much to keep the legend of the outlaw pair alive. In 1967 Serge Gainsbourg recorded his song "Bonnie and Clyde" as a duet with Brigitte Bardot (this song would be covered in the 1990s by the bands Stereolab, Luna and MC Solaar). In 1968, Merle Haggard had a hit single with his song "Legend of Bonnie and Clyde", and Georgie Fame and the Blue Flames had a hit on both sides of the Atlantic with "The Ballad of Bonnie and Clyde."
In his 1996 song "Me and My Girlfriend," rapper Tupac Shakur says that he and his gun are the "'96 Bonnie and Clyde." Eminem's 1999 album The Slim Shady LP features a song called "'97 Bonnie & Clyde." Tori Amos did a cover of it on her album Strange Little Girls. The duo is also referenced in The Tears' song "Refugees" and "'03 Bonnie and Clyde" by Beyonce and Jay-Z. In 2002, country singer Travis Tritt recorded "Modern Day Bonnie And Clyde", about a man and woman on a crime spree. The song "Demolition Lovers" by My Chemical Romance describes a Bonnie and Clyde type crime couple shot down in the desert. In the song "Count on Me" by The Game has the line, "…used to do the homicide thing, now we in the wind doin' that Bonnie and Clyde thing." Canadian singer-songwriter Martina Sorbara's debut single off her 2002 Cure for Bad Deeds, "Bonnie & Clyde," depicts an idealistically romantic couple. The German punk band Die Toten Hosen have a song entitled "Bonnie Und Clyde" that details their exploits. In 2006, the British indie-pop band Johnny Boy released a song titled "'Bonnie Parker's 115th Dream'" on their self-titled debut album.
 See also
- ^ a b c Phillips, John. Running with Bonnie and Clyde: The Ten Fast Years of Ralph Fults
- ^ a b c d e f g Barrow, Marie. The Family Story of Bonnie and Clyde
- ^ a b c Geringer, Joseph. Bonnie and Clyde: Romeo and Juliet in a Getaway Car
- ^ Youngblood, Dorothy (2006). . "Bonnie Parker's Classmate: Records of the County Literary Contest. Accessed May 2, 2006.
- ^ Fowler, Jimmy (2006). . "Dallas Observer" Newspaper. Accessed May 2, 2006.
- ^ Phillips, John Neal (2004). Bonnie & Clyde's Revenge on Eastham
- ^ Phillips, John Neal (2004). Bonnie & Clyde's Revenge on Eastham. American History Magazine. Accessed June 18, 2005.
- ^ Phillips, John Neal (2004). . "Running With Bonnie and Clyde: The Ten Fast Years of Ralph Fults" Accessed June 18, 2005.
- ^ Phillips, John Neal (2004). . American History Magazine. Accessed June 18, 2005.
- ^ Treherne, John (2004). cite>. "The Strange History of Bonnie and Clyde"
- ^ Treherne, John (2004). cite>. "The Strange History of Bonnie and Clyde"
- ^ Treherne, John (2004). "The Strange History of Bonnie and Clyde."
- ^ The Posse, . Accessed May 3, 2006.
- ^ Hinton, Ted. "Ambush: Ambush: The Real Story of Bonnie and Clyde"
- ^ Alcorn, Bob and Hinton, Ted. Bonnie & Clyde. Accessed April 29, 2006.
- ^ notes from Bonnie Parker's mother's book, The True Story of Bonnie and Clyde . Accessed May 2, 2006
- ^ Treherne, John (2004). "The Strange History of Bonnie and Clyde."
- ^ FBI National Warrant Records(2006). . Accessed May 2, 2006.
- ^ Treherne, John (2004). cite>. "The Strange History of Bonnie and Clyde"
- ^ John Treherne. The Strange Life of Bonnie and Clyde
- ^ Ted Hinton. Ambush
- ^ a b E.R. Milner. "Death Came Out to Meet Them", from The Lives and Times of Bonnie and Clyde
- ^ Washington Times, The (2004). Bonnie and Clyde live on. Accessed June 17, 2005.
- ^ Butler, Steven (2003). In Search of Bonnie and Clyde in Louisiana. Accessed June 17, 2005.
- ^ 
- ^ 
- Bonnie Parker winning County Literary Contest
- statement on authorities conceding Bonnie was no gun crazed outlaw, Jimmy Fowler of the Dallas Observer.
- Took no chances, Hinton and Alcorn tell Newspapermen Wednesday Night's Extra, Dallas Dispatch. Accessed Jan 17, 2006.
- Treherne, John (2000). The Strange History of Bonnie & Clyde. Cooper Square Press. ISBN 0-8154-1106-5.
- DeFord, Miriam Allen (1968). The Real Bonnie and Clyde. Sphere Books.
- Hinton, Ted; Grove, Larry (1979). The Real Story of Bonnie and Clyde. Shoal Creek Publishers, Inc. ISBN 0-88319-041-9.
- Shelton, Gene (1997). The Life and Times of Frank Hamer. Berkeley Books. ISBN 0-425-15973-6.
- Matteson, Jason, "Texas Bandits: A Study of the 1948 Democratic Primary"
- Cartledge, Rick "The Guns of Frank Hamer,"
- Knight, James R.; Davis, Jonathan (2003). Bonnie and Clyde: A Twenty-First-Century Update. Eakin Press. ISBN 1-57168-794-7
- Milner, E.R. The Lives and Times of Bonnie and Clyde
- Phillips, John Neal, Running with Bonnie & Clyde: The Ten Fast Years of Ralph Fults.
- Steele, Phillip, and Scoma Barrow, Marie, The Family Story of Bonnie and Clyde
 External links
- Bonnie and Clyde's Hideout (pictures and documents)
- "Riding with Bonnie and Clyde", by W.D. Jones (Playboy, November 1968)
- Bonnie and Clyde (An American Tragedy of the Depression Era)
- Blanche Barrow Memorial Website
- "Bonnie and Clyde: Romeo and Juliet In a Getaway Car", by Joseph Geringer
- Henry Methvin Historical Website
- Bonnie Parker